Early in Chasing Amy, Kevin Smith’s ode to comic books, there’s a scene where a black writer named Hooper X is discussing the blackness of Darth Vader as a cultural reflection. It’s hilarious because it’s so over the top and absurd. What? You mean George Lucas was really saying that all black people wanted to be white deep down inside?
As ridiculous as that scene was, the larger truth is that America’s collective unconscious has always been reflected and amplified by the portrayal of Hollywood villains. If you want to understand the big picture broad strokes of America, there’s no better place to look than Hollywood’s action genre fare.
That’s the case starting with Birth of Nation, which is considered by many to be the first modern cinematic masterpiece. That 1915 movie by D.W. Griffith, also known as The Clansman, featured an uncontrollable ex-slave, who’s essentially portrayed as an animal on the prowl for a piece of white female flesh.
Strangely, it is the Ku Klux Klan that are the heroes of that picture. But culturally speaking, was there ever a group of people who scared the country in 1915 more than the sons and grandkids of ex-slaves? As much as America has progressed in the last 100 years, it hasn’t always been the most accepting place to live if you were an African-American or foreigner, obviously. But making the Ku Klux Klan the heroes of a movie is a worse sin than Al Jolsen going blackface in The Jazz Singer.
So our research team took a look at more than 100 popular action films from the past 60+ years in an attempt to figure out what kind of person is suited to be a great bad guy and what that villain represents. The results are interesting: America went Superhero after 9/11, so Arab/Middle Eastern villains are few and far between; maybe Jews really do run Hollywood, as evidenced by the lack of Bar Mitzvah’d Bad Guys; and Soviets and Germans really knew how to scare the crap out of a post-World War II America heading straight into the Cold War. Our findings, along with a detailed spreadsheet, follow…
The Rise of the Russians (and Germans)
Skipping ahead to the 1950s film noir genre, which coincides with the beginning of the Cold War and McCarthy-era paranoia in America, films shifted away from the fanciful adventures of Errol Flynn or the slaptick comedy of Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin and began to tackle series themes like the failings of government and the dangers of Communism. There was an element of realism to Hollywood productions, digging down into the seedy, dark side of life.
Russians, and even Germans, get the nod for most used ethnic backgrounds in action movies, since most movies need a dastardly clever villain who possesses legions of unnamed henchmen.
Need a mastermind criminal? Go with a Soviet evil scientist — he’ll give your protagonist a run for his money. Literally for five decades, the go-to baddie has essentially been a Soviet, Russian or German criminal who could be inserted into a movie in a pinch.
That’s not entirely surprising, given America’s fascination with their frenemy from the end of World War II until the early 1990s. No other country loomed as large a fear in America’s psyche as Russia did.
This didn’t change much throughout the 1960s even as James Bond’s Dr. No ushered in an era of fantastical spy films routed in gadgets and beautiful women. The bad guys were a combination of Russian or Germans due to the remnants of World War II, but also because that decade was crouched in the fears of nuclear war abroad and domestic upheaval at home.
There are still lingering fears about Nazism and what it means to be German. This leads into the first Bond movie, Dr. No, where the main baddie is a man with the name, surprise surprise, Dr. No. He is half-German half-Chinese with an unmatched scientific brilliance. Oh, and metallic hands.
But as the U.S.’s confrontation with Russia escalated during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Hollywood took note and escalated the use of Russians as the main evil-doers. You see this mostly play out in the James Bond movies, where Germans were reduced to the sidekick role and Russian Ernst Blofeld, the leader of SPECTRE, stepped in as the iconic spy’s nemesis.
Russians featured heavily in the Bond-parody Our Man Flint and the thriller Ice Station Zebra, which featured Boris Vaslov as the turncoat traitor who claims to have defected while still being a double agent for the U.S.S.R.
The underlying theme: What would happen if the Soviet Union got the best of America. What if they pulled another Sputnik in the space race, what if they spread Communism to the rest of the world?
The decade in movies, however, leaned heavily on psychological horror — notably from Alfred Hitchcock — or movies like The Manchurian Candidate, where Russia would secretly invade America. Perhaps no movie encapsulated the decade like the dark satire from Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove. Still, the spaghetti westerns of Sergio Leone, and the classic Hollywood sword and sandal pictures, were also en vogue. It was, in short, a decade of transition for Hollywood from the old studio system that built the industry to the one where directors and actors essentially call the shots.
It was the 1970s that changed everything.